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1. What is coffee?
He coffee It is the drink that is obtained from the grains toasted and ground fruits of the coffee plant (coffee tree) , which It is highly stimulating due to its caffeine content , a psychoactive substance , which means that it exerts a direct effect on the Central Nervous System and that it causes specific changes in its functions, which is why it is said to have nootropic effects (1) .
The coffee tree is native to the former province of Kaffa (Ethiopia) . It is currently cultivated in more than 50 countries around the world. In Spain, Portugal and Paraguay, the consumption of roasted or roasted coffee is frequent , that is, roasted in the presence of sugar.
Coffee contains natural caffeine, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and a high amount of chlorogenic acids, polyphenols and hydroxycinnamic acids, which act as phytonutrients. and antioxidants . Its composition will depend on the origin of the grain.
Today there are multiple studies on the benefits of coffee attributed to its regular consumption. Improves mood and increases energy levels (2), increases mental focus and concentration capacity (3) , improves physical performance allowing you to train with greater intensity (4) , helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (5). There is research that indicates a lower tendency to suffer from diseases such as type 2 diabetes(6), Parkinson's (7), some types of cancer (8), and gallbladder diseases (9).
2. How much coffee can you drink and what is your degree of tolerance?
While moderate coffee consumption is considered beneficial, excessive consumption can be harmful. The general recommendations in adults are a maximum of 4 cups of coffee a day, which is equivalent to 400 milligrams of caffeine and 300 milligrams in the case of pregnant women (10).
But this recommendation is very general, you always have to individualize and see the context , since there are certain cases in which consumption should be avoided or reduced, such as people with insomnia or sleep disorders, those with certain stomach problems or ulcers. , those who have high levels of anxiety or stress, people who are sensitive to caffeine who with small doses already feel nervousness, anxiety, restlessness. As you can see, coffee is not for everyone.
Let's also remember that caffeine is addictive , that's why we see people who can't live without coffee and who need to drink more and more to feel its effects.
Consuming coffee (caffeine) daily causes your body to generate tolerance , that is, its effects disappear as your body adapts to them, which is why you need more and more but remember that after certain amounts it is no longer recommended.
This is because daily caffeine consumption ends up saturating adenosine receptors and more and more is needed to produce the initial effects (11). Therefore, the effect that caffeine causes in your body will depend on the degree of tolerance you have. The good news is that it only takes seven coffee-free days to regain caffeine sensitivity ;)
1- Bracco D, et al. Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. nineteen ninety five.
2- Dr Carrie H. S The impact of caffeine on mood, cognitive function, performance and hydration: a review of benefits and risks. Royal College of Physicians, 2008
3- Latarsha Gatlin, caffeine has positive effect on memory researchers say. Researchers at Johns Hopkins University, 2014
4- JD Wiles, SR Bird, J Hopkings and M Riley . Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1992.
5- Brezová V, et al. Coffee as a source of antioxidants: An EPR Study - Food Chemistry 2009.
6- Van Dam R, et al. Coffee, Caffeine, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. 2016.
7- Kumar PM, et al. Differential effect of caffeine intake in subjects with genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's Disease. Scientific Reports. 2015
8- YuX, et al. Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMC Cancer. 2011
9- Ruhl CE, et al. Association of coffee consumption with gallbladder disease. American journal of epidemiology. 2000
10-EFSA Explains Risk Assessment: Caffeine. 2015.
11- Beatriz Lara, Time course of tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine, 2018.